PLL and noise questions

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Hey gurus,

I'm trying to understand how PLLs work, so I have some (basic?)
questions...

1. When a PLL has "locked" to an incoming siqnalg, is the phase error
between the output signal and the input signal 0 deg/radians or is the
phase offset just fixed?

i.e. Assuming PLL lock condition, if I have the input to a PLL up on a
scope and I bring the output up on a scope, will the rising and falling
edges of both waveforms be aligned up, or will I see some offset between
rising(and falling) of input and output?

2. Related to above: If the phase error is fixed and non-zero, is there
any way (with PLLs/DPLLs or DLL?) to time-align the waveforms so they
are close to perfectly in phase?

3. If I understand correctly, PLLs can track phase variations AND
frequency variations (dTheta/dT) just by adjusting a VCO(with a control-
loop)?

4. I was looking at specs for noise and I see it's specified in

nano-Volts/(square_root(Frequency)) along with another units, dBFS.

Is there any article or website, or section of a book that actually
explains these units, how they came about and how they're used? I have
several engineering books, but I don't ever see discussion of noise,
especially with those units.

And no, this isn't for homework!

-- With warm regards

Jay.


Re: PLL and noise questions

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There are many kinds of PLLs and each kind has a different locked
condition.  They are generally classified by the type of phase
detector used.  If the phase detector is the type that produces a
fixed voltage for a fixed phase error, then the PLL will lock with a
static offset sufficient to maintain the required control voltage to
the VCO.  If the phase detector is the type that integrates the phase
error, then even a small phase error will eventually accumulate the
required integral of VCO feedback voltage, so that kind of PLL will
lock with zero phase error.


-Robert Scott
 Ypsilanti, Michigan
(Reply through newsgroups, not by direct e-mail, as automatic reply address is
fake.)


Re: PLL and noise questions

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The classic 4046 in nearly any CMOS series has detectors for both types. The
multiplier (xor) detector locks at 90 degrees and the digital detector locks
at zero. It's an easy thin to start with.

HTH

Tauno Voipio
tauno voipio @ iki fi



Re: PLL and noise questions

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Take a look at th HMC439 and 440 Phase freq  detector data sheet
and the PLL calculator on Hittite Microwaves website
http:www.hittite.com

Re: PLL and noise questions
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The phase is usually 90degrees or pi/2, as only then the two
signals multiplied are zero.

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The phase error is assumed zero when the signals are 90degrees
to each other. Yes, there is some timing to lock involved and it
is dependent on the loop gain function.

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Yes.


There are various application notes from eg Analog Devices and others.
The noise of a PLL is called phase noise and is also expressed
as 'ps Jitter RMS'.

Rene
--
Ing.Buero R.Tschaggelar - http://www.ibrtses.com
& commercial newsgroups - http://www.talkto.net


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