watermarking on FPGA

I'm going to do a very simple watermarking. I want to embed a signature on unused LUTs. could you please tell me how I can do it? Thank you very much.

Reply to
Hamid Kavianathar
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OR how to embed digital signature in verilog code?

Reply to
Hamid Kavianathar

The simplest way is just to have a register that can be read out in some manner that has a permanent value. This is a lot more like a serial number than a "watermark". If you mean a thing that affects the logic operations in some subtle way, I really can't imagine how to do that. Some FPGAs do have laser-programmed unique serial numbers built into the chip.


Reply to
Jon Elson

Disregarding any way to actually read out the signature, it seems like a no-brainer to simply write your signature to a multi bit register loaded at startup. Just make sure the register is not synthesized away due to no output use.

There are at least a few requirements that are unknown:

  1. Shall the watermark be readable from the FPGA bit file? In other words, an FPGA is not even needed for the IP to hold the watermark.
  2. Shall the watermark be readable via some mechanism? If not, I can't see any reason for it.
  3. I believe FPGA vendors are starting to provide security features. Will one of those vendor products meet your needs for a lot less effort?


Reply to
John Speth

What *problem* are you trying to solve with "watermarking"? Only after defining that can you begin to think whether watermarking is a sufficient solution.

"If you think cryptography will solve your problem, you don't understand cryptography and you don't understand your problem".

Reply to
Tom Gardner

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