I tireid using ust a pin pair and inverting function.
But with LVCMOS333 on Breakout Board ( 3,3V for I/O), MachXO implements hysteresis on input and this seems to hamper the oscillations.
I can't start the crystal reliably. If oscillation starts, it runs fine.
I used siimple 24MHz quartz with 1M across and 22pF toward GND on each side.
Can't find anythong on the matter on Lattice...
Any reason you're using a crystal rather than a crystal oscillator?
The latter has the resonant amplifier built in, rather than depending on the
vagaries of the FPGA I/O pads.
(A reason could be to save $0.01 in a product, but I doubt that's the case
Just testing something. I already have osc on PLL, but needed extra frequency that I couldn't synthesize.
I had a crystal for it, but not an oscillator, so I thought about just popping a crystal on FPGA for the test...
To be able to route as a clock internally, you probably have to wire it to a
clock input. I suspect such inputs deliberately have hysteresis to reduce
the jitter of input clocks, which would counteract your wish to have a
You could use some discrete components to make a separate
quency that I couldn't synthesize.
popping a crystal on FPGA for the test...
You make two assumptions without checking a data sheet. How likely is your
conclusion to be correct?
As it turns out neither of the assumptions are correct. The eight clock in
puts on the MachXO2 devices can be single ended or differential. When sing
le ended the Schmitt trigger feature can be turned on or off. The input ci
rcuit can be used differentially with an RC used to set the operating point
of one input vs. the other. Resistor between the two inputs, a cap on one
input and the crystal connection to the other input. This should give opt
imum sensitivity, almost like an analog device. When the input signal is l
ooped back to the output it will be digital, but with an appropriate attenu
ation network to protect the crystal from damage, it should work fine. The
attenuation network is often used with more analog-like devices such as th
Also, clocks can be sourced from the general routing, so any input can be u
sed for a clock. It may not go through specific clock features and will ha
ve more delay, but it will work just fine as an internal clock.
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Which means using 3 pins for a simple crystal, which often are not there.
It's easy to overelook such details in bazillion pages of data sheet.
I tried to do it traditional way with simple input and output.
With 74HC it works just fine. But will have to redo it for an exercise in other versions ( with hysteresis and with diff-input + output.
Also, I've noticed that I can make it oscillate with just one inverter ( probably depending on the routing). It seems this could be done with just one I/O pin, at least in some cases...
other versions ( with hysteresis and with diff-input + output.
probably depending on the routing). It seems this could be done with just o
ne I/O pin, at least in some cases...
A 74HC04 is an amplifier if you are in the middle of the input voltage rang
e. You can do the same thing in an FPGA, but you need to add a high value
resistor in parallel with the crystal and make sure there is an inversion b
etween input and output. The resistor will make the circuit unstable and t
he crystal will control the frequency.
Just make sure to get the I/O configuration right. No Schmitt triggers!
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This sounds like a threshold issue. Are you certain the 1M resistor is
sufficient to always drive the input such that the output should switch
When it doesn't oscillate, is the output always high or low?
What I have seen in similar circumstances, is that the circuit
oscillates at a frequency governed by the R and C in a relaxation mode,
and not the crystal at its resonance.
I believe the resistor is there to establish a DC bias at the threshold of the input. The crystal acts primarily as an LC series resonance, so very low impedance.
A relaxation oscillator requires a change to the threshold for the two states. You will get that if there is hysteresis. Otherwise not.
I believe the initial problem was the inclusion of hysteresis in the input pin configuration.
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One comment on this, the basic circuit for a crystal oscilator doesn't
need an 'Inverter' from pin to pin, but an inverting amplifier. At the
crystal resonate frequency, it provides 180 degrees of phase shift,
giving positive gain at that frequency, and oscilation.
A typical inverter chip will bias itself into its quasi-linear region
and normally oscillate.
A generic pair of pins is unlikely to end up biasing itself this way
reliably. You are more apt to end up with a relaxation oscillator whose
frequency is based on the capacative load and propagation times.
I would ask what difference you see between an inverter chip and an inverting function in a more complex device that is relevant in this situation?
The point where the bias is important is the input pin. Can you explain what DC level you might expect to see at this input pin that would not be very close to the input threshold voltage?
One of these days I should connect an input and output through a resistor to see just what it does with different delays in the path. Then add a few different crystals to see what happens.
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HC,AC have delay that strongly corrsponds to capacitive load.
Fro HC it would be probably about 10 ns worst case and perhaps 3-4 ns when lightly loaded.
But since here it is oerating practically in linear region, I'd say that with decent VCC (5V) it is closer to 1ns and on 3,3V perhaps 2-3ns...
n lightly loaded.
with decent VCC (5V) it is closer to 1ns and on 3,3V perhaps 2-3ns...
Why would running linear give a 1 ns delay? Even a couple of ns sounds sig
nificant when running a 24 MHz crystal. I can get single digit ns delays f
rom pin to pin in an FPGA.
VCC Typ Max Max Max
4.5V ? 9 18 23 27
That's a far cry from 1 ns.
I'm just not buying the idea that a 74HC04 will be a fine oscillator when a
12 pF load capacitor is used and an FPGA loopback will not.
I once designed a circuit where from input to output I had 15 ns. It's sti
ll working fine and that was an FPGA available in 2000.
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