How to backup installed packets ?

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Hello all,

As I can't seem to repair the sound problems I'm having I'm pretty much  
forced to reinstall everything from the ground up.   As such I'm also  
looking at how to backup packages I'm going to (re)install.  The problem  
with those is ofcourse their dependancies.

After a lot of googeling I stumbled over a way to get an installed packets  
dependancies:

apt-cache  
depends --recurse --no-recommends --no-suggests --no-conflicts --no-breaks --no-replaces  
 --no-enhances <your-package-here> | grep "^\w" | sort -u

The problem is that those are just the basic package names, while I need the  
filenames as present in the "/var/cache/apt/archives/" folder.  Some further  
searching gave me a way to get a filename from the package name:

apt-cache show <your-package-here> | grep Filename

The problem with this one is that although I get a filename, I sometimes  
can't find it back in the above mentioned folder

For instance, "apt-cache show blues  | grep Filename" returns two filenames,  
neither of which are in the cache: bluez_5.50-1+rpt1_armhf.deb and  
bluez_5.50-1+b12_armhf.deb.  However, bluez-obexd_5.50-1+rpt1_armhf.deb is  
(which is mentioned as a dependancy for "blueman").

Does anyone have any information to
1) why "apt-cache" returns filenames that do not exist in the cache (lots  
and /lots/ of them)
2) how I can get "apt-cache" (or some other program) to return the names of  
actually cached files

Regards,
Rudy Wieser

P.s.
If there is onother way to download packages /and its dependancies/ for  
offline, later install I'd like to hear it (I've seen "apt-offline" being  
mentioned, but got some "combersome" remarks).




Re: How to backup installed packets ?
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To get a list packages installed on your system

  dpkg --get-selections  > /some_file

You'll need to save the file somewhere for use later

On a new install, you then do  

  dpkg --set-selections < /some_file

You don't need to worry about the dependencies. If a package has  
dependancies they will be installed with the package.



Re: How to backup installed packets ?
Jim,

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That one lists /all/ packages (al lot), including those that are part of  
installation of the OS, which do not need to be backupped.  Its the ones  
I've added (installed by hand) that need to be.

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:-)  The idea is that I can install everything (the .deb files) /offline/ -  
without having to depend on the internet.

Regards,
Rudy Wieser



Re: How to backup installed packets ?
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Doesn't matter. If the package is already installed it will be skipped -  
things don't installed twice - unless there is a more recent version of  
the package.

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You really do like making things difficult don't you!

Re: How to backup installed packets ?
Jim,

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The idea is that I can use those backups when I need to /re-install the OS  
from from scratch/ (like when the sd card dies).   There won't be any  
already installed packages there.

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Whut ?    My wish not to have to depend on "tha intarwebz" is considered  
"making things difficult" ?  Really ?

Personally I do not like to depend on resources that are beyond my control.  
Like those packages that could still be available when I need them again,  
but most likely will have changed in the mean time (new versions and all  
that), and as such could have become incompatible with what I find most  
important, /my/ stuff.   Its as simple as that.

Regards,
Rudy Wieser

P.s.
Yes, I could just save the cache with all the .deb files and bulk re-install  
them (can I do that?), but as long as I'm looking at it anyway I would like  
to be able to do it in a less coarse way (giving me the possibility, when  
re-installing, to leave out packages I am no longer using).



Re: How to backup installed packets ?
On 24/12/2019 09:47, R.Wieser wrote:
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OK, surely an old school system backup meets all your requirements.  
Install everything you want and then just copy the entire sd card to a  
tar file. When reinstalling you can just restore this tar file.

Alternative Internet dependent modern solutions are:

Automate installation using provisioning software such as Chef or  
Ansible. You write a script for exactly how you want to set the machine  
up and the provisioning software will install everything you need, so no  
need for a system backup. I've never done this but you can look it up.

Or, I take a third path where I run Docker containers and install very  
little on my base Linux distribution. So reinstalling is trivial.













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Re: How to backup installed packets ?
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Just backup the whole system. It?s easier and it?s more accurate (no
special steps needed to recreated the prior configuration).

--  
https://www.greenend.org.uk/rjk/

Re: How to backup installed packets ?
declaimed the following:

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    Better to maintain pre-configured spare SD cards...  

    Maybe plug in a USB<>SD-card reader and use

Accessories/SD Copier

{I've not tried that -- I just keep a shell script of apt commands on my
Windows box, since it I prefer to rebuild full Raspbian /with updates/ from
the NOOBS full download and an on-line connection. Relying upon copies of
some downloaded .DEB files puts one at risk of having packages missing
security updates, et al -- which requires an on-line connection just to do
apt update/apt upgrade to correct them}


--  
    Wulfraed                 Dennis Lee Bieber         AF6VN
     snipped-for-privacy@ix.netcom.com    http://wlfraed.microdiversity.freeddns.org/

Re: How to backup installed packets ?
Dennis,

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In my case that would most likely not be a problem, as I tend to keep my Pi  
offline.

But ... Do you know how to have the Pi check if certain /security/ updates  
are of interrest (to my current installation) ?   And I do mean security  
updates only.

Regards,
Rudy Wieser



Re: How to backup installed packets ?
declaimed the following:

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    Unfortunately, Raspberry-Pi foundation doesn't separate them -- all
packages are under a single repository

pi@rpi3bplus-1:~$ cat /etc/apt/sources.list
deb http://raspbian.raspberrypi.org/raspbian/ buster main contrib non-free
rpi

    In contrast, purer Debian actually has some separation between core,
updates, and security, and commenting out the first two would likely leave
only security updates to be found by apt update.

debian@beaglebone:~$ cat /etc/apt/sources.list
deb http://deb.debian.org/debian stretch main contrib non-free

deb http://deb.debian.org/debian stretch-updates main contrib non-free

deb http://deb.debian.org/debian-security stretch/updates main contrib
non-free

    Obviously not of use when the foundation builds its own binaries (due
to variations in hardware, the foundation builds with a different floating
point instruction set from what Debian itself uses).


--  
    Wulfraed                 Dennis Lee Bieber         AF6VN
     snipped-for-privacy@ix.netcom.com    http://wlfraed.microdiversity.freeddns.org/

Re: How to backup installed packets ?
On 30/12/2019 21:18, Dennis Lee Bieber wrote:
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If it's not online why do you need security updates?
Where's the attack vector for an air-gapped system?



Re: How to backup installed packets ?
mm0fmf,

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For the times I need to download packages ?

Besides, better ask now than to start with it when I need to access the  
internet yesterday.

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USB devices (thumbdrives, keyboards, etc) ?    NOOBS or other ways to  
install an OS ?  Packages ?   Bluetooth ?  Wifi ?    Poisonned resource  
files (images, music, video, spreadsheets) ? Booby-trapped source-code ?

Air-gapping isn't the ends-all defence against intrusions you know. :-)

Regards,
Rudy Wieser



Re: How to backup installed packets ?
Dennis,

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Bummer.

Regards,
Rudy Wieser



Re: How to backup installed packets ?
Hello Rudy and others,

Mon. 23 Dec 2019, 21:13:53, R. Wieser wrote to All:

RW> The idea is that I can install everything (the .deb files) /offline/ -
RW> without having to depend on the internet.

The most simpel and easiest way is to make full BackUps;
i.e. GrandFather, Father ans Sun principle.
No internet connection needed for this.
Use two (micro-)SDcard reader/writers and (micro-)SDcard form the same make,
and capacity, but if possible different makes of (micro-)SDcard reader/writers.
The first one with the source card inserted as first.
The second one with the destination card inserted after that.
Then unmount all (micro-)SDcard readers/writers from the taksbar,
or with the "unmount" command, but leave the readers/writers in de USB-ports of
 the machine! That is necessarry to slo close all files on both cards.
That way the (original) source (micro-)SDcard/disk is mostly /dev/sda and
the destination (backup) (micro-)SDcard/disk is /dev/sdb,
Be very careful, as inserting the source and destination in the wrong order,
they get other device names, and can confuse you very much.
Than you can overwrite your original with the contents of a new emty or old
card/disk, so that can be very dangerous.
I use different make of card readers/writers so I can recognise wich one is sda
 and wich is sdb.
After this do, when you are very sure about the right device names:

pi@raspberrypi:~ $ sudo dd if=/dev/sda of=/dev/sdb bs=4M
pi@raspberrypi:~ $ sudo sync

After this remove both cardreader/writers and insert the destination version,
to see if if the backup worked ok and is readable!
But note: you can not mount two identical (micro-)SDcards anymore since
          Raspbian Stretch! That has to do with the same UID's.
So I use the 32 GB card for booting to look at the 16 GB backup,
and also the other way round, look at a 32 GB backup from a 16 GB booted card.

Second tip:
Create a text file called "owner" in both the Fat32 partition and the EXT4
partion
with your name, adres, e-mail and phone number in it, and the first creation
date of that Linux imageand added with the linux version info.

Copying 16 GB takes 30 minutes and copying 32 GB takes 60 minutes on a Pi 3B.
I have not tested this on the 4GB Pi 4B at the 2 USB3A ports.
It should be remarkably faster. But I donot have USB3A cardreader/writers.

Do NOT use the inbuild software SDcard Copier, as it is NOT reliable,
and backing up from the interne mmcblk0 is not done either, because of allways
open files, the backup made is than not 100 % identical!
But for the very first backup you can do that, so you can make backups with the
 2 cardreaders/writers all the next sessions, including overwritin that first
wrong backup witch a new fresh one made with dd instead of the SDcard Copier.
So always use a good working Raspbian Linux card for making backups of other
cards.

When a card got corrupted, i.e. Linux does not start anymore from it,
first try to get as much private data from it as you can in another machine,
i.e. to an USB stick or another microSDcard by using the cardwriter.
Mostly the directory structure is readable for the biggest part, it only does
not boot anymore.
After this, you can restore the latest backup on that corrupted card in the
same way as making backups above. And then restore the earlier saved private
files back to their original locations on the fresh card.
When done, make immediately a new backup on another card, not the one you used
to create this one, if you understand me.
Then you can going working as usual.

I only change Linux versions once a year with a completely ne install, and I
made a textfile for personalisation of the new version with my previous
experiences, to make new installations faster the way I want my setups.
And indeed you can use your .deb files on the new version too.
The rest of the year doing:
    sudo apt-get update
    sudo apt-get upgrade
will be enough I think, and normally only necessarry when installing new
packages and tools etc.
Good luck.

Henri.


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