What you really need is the service manual for your monitor, a good high speed digital scope, a data analyser, and a good DVM just to start to get in to it. You will also need a lot of background training in the design philosophy of LCD monitors to have an idea of what is going on.
In the service department, we service these at the modular level only, and use the specified test instruments to do the proper factory level adjustments. Only simple to replace parts are changed on the boards, if economical to do so.
LCD screens use a backplane bias, that is an AC squarewave type supply. Depending on the design, they use a voltage range of around 3 to 5 volts. Some designs may use more or less. The frequency, and dutycycle has to do with the particular display design.
The pixels are matrix addressable that is working with millions of crosspoints. The input to the screen is a multi level X - Y array of addressing from a control buss. This must also include a Z value to determine the amplitude of luminance. There is a groups of this for each colour.
The actual way detailed that it works is fairly complex, and involved. For a video display screen, there has to be a translation from a scanned position to a pixel address location, at the same time there has to be a luminance value that is set from a reference table.
It would be beyond the scope of emails to get in to the depth of LCD monitor analysis, and design, to assist you in detail of how to service your monitor at the component level.
If you give your monitor out for service, the service rep will replace the modules one by one, until the monitor has no defects. Then he will go through the calibration checks, and adjust as necessary, according to the service manual for your monitor. Most of the adjustments are done with an external interface, rather than having internal pots. Many of the newer monitors do not even have an internal set-up menu anymore. Everything is external.
As for computer monitor service manuals, these are not normally sold by the manufactures. They keep their service information proprietary. They also know that the average service shop will not have the necessary test equipment to perform the proper service on the monitor, and most of the parts inside are also proprietary, so there is no point in all of this.
Considering the cost of servicing any of these monitors in relation to the purchase price of a new one, it usually does not pay to service these monitors when they are out of warranty. The only simple service that someone may be able to do on their own, is to change the backplane lamps, and ballast supply. There are a fair number of electronic parts suppliers that are selling substitute parts for this type of repair.
Some information about LCD screen operation:
Plasma Information, Just For Interest:
LCD Projection Screens: