battery jargon

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A battery consists of two metals brought into contact.  
Somehow, they form an anode/cathode electric potential.  
That's the extent of my battery chemistry.

So:
NiCd - nickel and cadmium
carbon zinc - zinc and carbon

Then:

alkaline - alkaline is a metal?  Works alone, no pair partner necessary?
mercury - ?
NiMH - nickel and metal hydride. er, is M a specific element,  
or will any metal do?
Li ion - ion is a metal?
lead acid - acid is a metal?
silver oxide - oxide is a metal?
zinc air - air is a metal?


Who invents these names?

--
Rich

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