# sine routines - Page 2

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Re: sine routines

Sine?  Not quite...

You can generate a square function - not a square wave but an x^2
function.  Imagine x^2 between 0 and 1.  It looks a bit like a quarter
cycle of sine.

You can generate an arbitrary amplitude and frequency wave in real
time by stringing together four such sections with appropriate
manipulation.  The result is slightly 'fatter' than a sinusoid to look
at on a 'scope, but the difference can only really be seen with a
direct comparison.

I've used this for controlling hydraulic machinery from almost 0 to
100Hz with great success - it really depends on your application.  I
don't know if your processor is up to it, but it's much easier than a
real sine and more flexible than a LUT.

Unless of course your application allows you to pre-calculte a LUT
before sending it to the DAC.

--
Syd

Re: sine routines

You should have stated this in your first posting.

You might get away with a phase accumulator and a look-up-table even
without interpolation between the steps. The truncation errors will on
some output frequencies contribute with wide band noise at the DAC
output, while on other frequency settings all the noise power is
concentrated in discrete sidebands.

Depending your requirements for the signal to noise ratio and the
maximum level allowed for discrete tones, the size of the LUT can be
determined. Also the situation is simpler if all the generated
frequencies are well below the sampling frequencies.

Most literature about numeric controlled oscillators (NCO) also
evaluates the size of the phase accumulator vs. steps size, the number
of address bits into the sin(x) table and the number of DAC bits and
the spurious levels.

If a simple table look up is not accurate enough, some very simple
interpolation with shifts and one or two adds should do the trick. Use
a spreadsheet to evaluate the error between the interpolated value and
the "exact" 64 bit double precision value and select your table size
and interpolation strategy to minimise the number of clock cycles
required for the calculations.

Paul

Re: sine routines

If your hardware design is not set in stone at this point, add two 27512 64Kx8
EPROMs, and a handful of glue logic.  Feed the address pins with two 8-bit
latches that can WRITE from the 8051.  Use some glue logic to take a pulse from
the processor, do a read cycle on the EPROMs, and latch the results into two
other 8-bit latches that you can READ from the 8051.

Now burn the EPROMs with sin(address), and you have a dedicated hardware sin(x)
lookup table that will be scary fast compared to any algorithm for computing
sin(x).

It works something like this:

pulse(SIN_TABLE_TRIGGER);
sinx = peek(SIN_TABLE_DATA_MSB) << 8 | peek(SIN_TABLE_DATA_LSB);

This is basically how the Yamaha DX7 synthesizer generated frequency-modulated
audio sinewaves.

The trick is realizing that you can hook EPROM (and RAM, for that matter)

Re: sine routines

64Kx8
from
two
sin(x)

computing

Nice idea, but you also need a DA converter.
Now go take a look at the AD9833: A full DDS capable of outputting DC to
12.5MHz in 0.1Hz steps, sine, square and triangle. And if you clock it with
'only' 1MHz, you get DC to 500kHz in 0.004Hz resolution.
And all this in a 10 pin package for a whopping \$9.30 at Digikey....

Meindert

Re: sine routines

The original poster already has a DAC.

If all you want is sine/square/triangle waves, that chip will do it.  If you
want to do more interesting things, it won't.

But I think I'm going to take a longer look at it, for some radio projects I
have in mind.

Re: sine routines

You can use a Taylor series. And if your angles are small you can get away
with a limited number of terms, depending on the required precision. You may
do it with integer math and the approprate scaling.

For example, for small angles, sin(x)=x  (in radians)

The next refinement: sin(x) = x - x*x /2 For angles below 1 radian this may
be sufficient.

Wim

Re: sine routines

Sorry, no such animal.  The fastest way to calculate sines is table
lookup and interpolation.  Also think 'octents' rather than quadrants to
preserve accuracy.

-- Regards, Albert
----------------------------------------------------------------------
AM Research, Inc.                  The Embedded Systems Experts
http://www.amresearch.com 916.780.7623
----------------------------------------------------------------------

Re: sine routines

Fastest I've seen was look-up with linear interpolation on a
twice-folded (at pi and pi/2) table of numerators for a fraction
with denominator 65535. All of the processing was performed in
integer math except the final division. Accuracy was pretty good
and the code was completely portable (the application wasn't for
an 8052).
--
Morris Dovey
West Des Moines, Iowa USA
We've slightly trimmed the long signature. Click to see the full one.
Re: sine routines

thank

This is a very fast but quite imprecise method of generating a sine-like
wave. I guess whether it is suitable depends what you want to use for. I
used it years ago on a PIC in conjunction with a software PWM and decay
function to generate a pleasing bell-like tone. I tried it out just now on
C++Builder, so I'll just paste the code and let you play with it to see if
it works for you. I seem to remember it may decay over time by itself due to
rounding errors:

void __fastcall TForm1::FormCreate(TObject *Sender)
{
int s=Image1->Height/4;
int c=0;
for( int x=0; x<Image1->Width; x++ )
{
c = c+s/16;
s = s-c/16;
Image1->Canvas->Pixels[x][s+Image1->Height/2]
=(TColor)0x00FF0000;
}
}

Peter.

Re: sine routines

thank

I am sorry, terribly busy, but you can get there from here (I had to)

circles ( and sines, fit for your purpose) using only add and subtract

X = 100: y = 0

FOR   i = 1 TO 1000

PRINT X, y

X = X - y / 256
y = y + X / 256

NEXT

If you cannot do it I will dig out the Scamp (INS8060) code, eventually.

David F. Cox

Re: sine routines
hi, this is the simplification of the compound angle formulas, it works very
well and can be quite quick but not as fast as a lookup table.

Re: sine routines

very

in context: I had to drive a stepper motor around 1 metre diameter circles
with an accuracy of 0.1 mm using a 2K EPROM

========
original post:
I am sorry, terribly busy, but you can get there from here (I had to)

circles ( and sines, fit for your purpose) using only add and subtract

X = 100: y = 0

FOR   i = 1 TO 1000

PRINT X, y

X = X - y / 256
y = y + X / 256

NEXT

If you cannot do it I will dig out the Scamp (INS8060) code, eventually.

David F. Cox
======