My DVB-T and DVB sat reception scrpts

So I played a bit with my old raspi B (the one with only 2 USB ports)
to see what 'TV' would look like.
I tried several different DVB-T USB sticks, all work,
and I tried my Cinergy 2 DVB-S2 USB satellite receiver.
I have a motorized dish, it can move and point to a satellite,
but for the UK it should work just as well with a fixed correctly pointed dish
I used omxplayer (again very very old version),
video via the HDMI to a Samsung HD monitor,
and audio via the rapi audio jack (I have a headset with volume control).
Here are some scripts, modify if required:
For the UK satellite stations;
show-dvb-bbc1:
mkfifo /root/fa
xdipo -d S -m QPSK -e AUTO -c 1 -g "26.5 E" -f 10773.00 -p h -s 22000 -a "5000 5001" -o > /root/fa &
omxplayer /root/fa
show-dvb-bbc2
mkfifo /root/fa
xdipo -d S -m QPSK -e AUTO -c 1 -g "26.5 E" -f 10773.00 -p h -s 22000 -a "5100 5101" -o > /root/fa &
omxplayer /root/fa
show-dvb-bbc3
mkfifo /root/fa
xdipo -d S -m QPSK -e AUTO -c 1 -g "26.5 E" -f 10773.00 -p h -s 22000 -a "5200 5201" -o > /root/fa &
omxplayer /root/fa
show-dvb-bbc4
mkfifo /root/fa
xdipo -d S -m QPSK -e AUTO -c 1 -g "26.5 E" -f 10803.00 -p h -s 22000 -a "5600 5601" -o > /root/fa &
omxplayer /root/fa
show-dvb-itv1
mkfifo /root/fa
xdipo -d S -m QPSK -e AUTO -c 1 -g "26.5 E" -f 10758.00 -p v -s 22000 -a "3328 3329" -o > /root/fa &
show-dvb-itv2
mkfifo /root/fa
xdipo -d S -m QPSK -e AUTO -c 1 -g "26.5 E" -f 10758.00 -p v -s 22000 -a "3332 3333" -o > /root/fa &
omxplayer /root/fa
show-dvb-itv3
mkfifo /root/fa
xdipo -d S -m QPSK -e AUTO -c 1 -g "26.5 E" -f 10758.00 -p v -s 22000 -a "3348 3349" -o > /root/fa &
omxplayer /root/fa
show-dvb-itv4
mkfifo /root/fa
xdipo -d S -m QPSK -e AUTO -c 1 -g "26.5 E" -f 10758.00 -p v -s 22000 -a "3340 3341" -o > /root/fa &
omxplayer /root/fa
show-dvb-c4
mkfifo /root/fa
xdipo -d S -m QPSK -e AUTO -c 1 -g "26.5 E" -f 10714.250 -p h -s 22000 -a "2315 2316" -o > /root/fa &
omxplayer /root/fa
show-dvb-c5
mkfifo /root/fa
xdipo -d S -m QPSK -e AUTO -c 1 -g "26.5 E" -f 10964 -p h -s 22000 -a "2346 2347" -o > /root/fa &
omxplayer /root/fa
So much for UK satellite, did not get C4 HD working, maybe monitor or configuration, or old version of omxplayer,
works on PC with mplayer though with same cinergy sat receiver.
And for the German satellite station
show-dvb-zdf
mkfifo /root/fa
xdipo -d S -m BPSK -e AUTO -c 1 -g "16.8 E" -f 11953.5 -p h -s 27500 -a "110 120" -o > /root/fa &
omxplayer /root/fa
show-dvb-ard
mkfifo /root/fa
xdipo -d S -m BPSK -e AUTO -c 1 -g "16.8 E" -f 11836.5 -p h -s 27500 -a "101 102" -o > /root/fa &
omxplayer /root/fa
show-dvb-prosieben
mkfifo /root/fa
xdipo -d S -m BPSK -e AUTO -c 1 -g "16.8 E" -f 12544 -p h -s 22000 -a "511 512" -o > /root/fa &
omxplayer /root/fa
show-dvb-sat1
mkfifo /root/fa
xdipo -d S -m BPSK -e AUTO -c 1 -g "16.8 E" -f 12544.75 -p h -s 22000 -a "255 256" -o > /root/fa &
omxplayer /root/fa
Austria German
show-dvb-vox-a
mkfifo /root/fa
xdipo -d S -m BPSK -e AUTO -c 1 -g "16.8 E" -f 12226.5 -p h -s 27500 -a "301 302" -o > /root/fa &
omxplayer /root/fa
Austria German
show-dvb-rtl-a
mkfifo /root/fa
xdipo -d S -m BPSK -e AUTO -c 1 -g "16.8 E" -f 12226.5 -p h -s 27500 -a "201 202" -o > /root/fa &
omxplayer /root/fa
Austria German
show-dvb-rtl2-a
mkfifo /root/fa
xdipo -d S -m BPSK -e AUTO -c 1 -g "16.8 E" -f 12226.5 -p h -s 27500 -a "401 402" -o > /root/fa &
omxplayer /root/fa
And then DVB-T with the USB dongle for north of Netherlands (Friesland),
it seems the Netherlands did not move to DVB-T2 (yet) where I am located:
show-nl1
dvbstream -c 0 -I 2 -qam 64 -gi 4 -cr 1_2 -crlp 1_2 -bw 8 -tm 8 -f 562000 -o 7011 7012 7013 | jpvtx 7013 | mplayer -cache 8192 -vf yadif -
show-nl2
dvbstream -c 0 -I 2 -qam 64 -gi 4 -cr 1_2 -crlp 1_2 -bw 8 -tm 8 -f 562000 -o 7021 7022 7023 | jpvtx 7023 | mplayer -cache 8192 -vf yadif -
show-nl3
dvbstream -c 0 -I 2 -qam 64 -gi 4 -cr 1_2 -crlp 1_2 -bw 8 -tm 8 -f 562000 -o 7031 7032 7033 | jpvtx 7033 | mplayer -cache 8192 -vf yadif -
So, basically, assuming the hardware is plugged in, on the command line (I do not start X by default) or via ssh, to see say BBC1,
one just types
show-bbc1
All scripts should be made executable with chmod +x, and I have those in /usr/local/sbin/
The ones using mplayer should be modified so they look like the ones using omxplayer for faster playback.
dvbstream is by Dave Chapman, and somewhere on the web, else I can mirror it if you need it,
is only a few lines of C and compiles with gcc (my version is very old).
It could also be used to receive satellite I suppose, but I use xdipo, as I wrote that, xdipo is here:
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If you DO use a movable dish and xdipo and you are not where I am (likely), then you need to use xdipo to calculate the correct angle,
and modify the scripts for your location.
You can also stream the output of xdipo or dvbstream over a LAN,
my old raspi B was not fast enough for ZDF and ARD streaming (those are almost double the bitrate),
but fast enough for the others.
The Cinergy S2 USB sat receiver needs the dvb-fe-ds3000.fw firmware loaded into /lib/firmware/
that firmware can be found on the internet.
Compiling xdipo may be a bit challenging, you will need Imake, xmkmf, libforms-dev, but it works,
forgot which packages I also needed to download long time ago.
I am sure dvbstream will give you all terrestial DVB-T in the UK too.
All the above stations are FTA.
beep
Reply to
Jan Panteltje
Loading thread data ...
grand :)

Hmmm.... How API accessible is the EPG information from a DVB-T and DVB-S from these USB dongles?
Reason I'm asking is, I've seen a few requests around these parts (err... Brian..) for a 'talking EPG', 'voice controlled remote', even 'voice controlled PVR' for use by the blind / partially sighted.
Don't seem to be those features available built into consumer electronics, something which the RPi could be knocked into doing?
--
Adrian C
Reply to
Adrian Caspersz
I would imagine an RPi with suitable software and a couple of dongles would do a very good job of recording and playing satellite or terrestrial channels.
I use TVHeadend, and a DVB-T-only decoder and a DVB-T/T2 decoder. That can comfortably record three HD channels from the same mux, or a couple of SD channels from both decoders simultaneously. It could even have a sound-only mode by capturing only the sound stream(s) for a channel, which would reduce the amount of disk space that would be needed.
The EPG information for DVB-T multiplexes is readily available as one of the header tables that is transmitted. I dare say someone could filter that information to list just a few favourite channels for a particular day/time, and to read it out using speech synthesis.
DVB-T2 (and presumably DVB-S2) is more of a problem because the EPG information is encrypted. However many PVR packages can read it, so it's probably a case of applying for a decryption key. Given that a lot of PVR software is free, it looks as if there's no cost incurred in getting a key, otherwise that cost would have to be passed on to the users of the software.
Reply to
NY
Adrian Caspersz
It is basically easy, for example for DVB-T here, the basic script to show nl-1 is: dvbstream -c 0 -I 2 -qam 64 -gi 4 -cr 1_2 -crlp 1_2 -bw 8 -tm 8 -f 562000 -o 7011 7012 7013 | jpvtx 7013 | mplayer -cache 8192 -vf yadif - that gets video (PID 7011), audio (PID 7012) and ceefax (PID 7013).
If you however typed: dvbstream -c 0 -I 2 -qam 64 -gi 4 -cr 1_2 -crlp 1_2 -bw 8 -tm 8 -f 562000 -o 8192 > /root/q1.ts then you record the whole transponder (the whole transmitter content for that frequency) to file /root/q1.ts
Stop it with control C after a few minutes (file will get VERY big), and then type: mediainfo /root/q1, then you see this (maybe needs apt-get install mediainfo):
root@raspberrypi:~# dvbstream -c 0 -I 2 -qam 64 -gi 4 -cr 1_2 -crlp 1_2 -bw 8 -tm 8 -f 562000 -o 8192 > /root/q1.ts dvbstream v0.5 - (C) Dave Chapman 2001-2004 Released under the GPL. Latest version available from
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Using DVB card "Realtek RTL2832 (DVB-T)" tuning DVB-T (in United Kingdom) to 562000000 Hz polling.... Getting frontend event FE_STATUS: polling.... Getting frontend event FE_STATUS: FE_HAS_SIGNAL FE_HAS_LOCK FE_HAS_CARRIER FE_HAS_VITERBI FE_HAS_SYNC Bit error rate: 757 Signal strength: 0 SNR: 221 FE_STATUS: FE_HAS_SIGNAL FE_HAS_LOCK FE_HAS_CARRIER FE_HAS_VITERBI FE_HAS_SYNC Setting filter for PID 2 Setting filter for PID 1 Setting filter for PID 8192 Output to stdout Streaming 3 streams ^C Caught signal 2 - closing cleanly.
Now typing: mediainfo /root/q1.ts shows this (I uploaded it to my website else this posting gets too long):
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There is all the info about what happens on that frequency (transponder). Using PID 8192 passes the whole transport stream, that is a feature of the Linux driver. Scroll down in that file and you have all the program info as ASCII text.
We see then for example menu 1 for program video 7010, it specifies menu ID 1101
It should be possible to filter and decode only the 1101 stream or is it 7010 stream text part?
There is of course also videotext, or for the English ceefax with program and other info. I did write a decoder for that, this script filters out only the ceefax (the Dutch call it teletext) for nl1 for example: dvbstream -c 0 -I 2 -qam 64 -gi 4 -cr 1_2 -crlp 1_2 -bw 8 -tm 8 -f 562000 -o 7013 | jpvtx 7013 > /dev/zero -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------^^^^^^^^^^
'jpvtx' is the ceefax decoder I wrote, its stores all pages in directory /video/vtx/1/ jpvtx is here:
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is easy to compile with gcc.
To view those pages I wrote xvtx-p, it reads that directory /video/vtx/1/ and display it in X, 4 pages at the time, you can click on page numbers, save pages too:
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should be no problem connecting some voice synthesizer to it. I use 'festival' sometimes for other things like spoken alarms etc.
You can combine jpvtx with normal video viewing like this for example (screenshot taken just now):
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I do not know much about voice control, I had some voice control to show things, scripts like you can say: show BBC1 for the PC but have not tried voice recognition on the rapi. One problem with voice control is false positives, so I stopped using it. Can look up some old code if you want. But maybe a simple joystick with talking menu could also work.
Ask if you need more specific info, been playing with video a long time.
Maybe I could help.
Reply to
Jan Panteltje
I've not found a way of recording a whole multiplex on the Pi. On Windows, VLC can be pointed at a DVB tuner (File | Open Capture Device) and can view any channel from it or can record the whole mux.
But I've not managed to make that work with VLC on Linux (either Ubuntu or Raspbian), even when I give it the path of the decoder (/dev/dvb/adaptor0 with various permutations of sub-devices) so maybe there's a permission problem.
It is weird to record a whole mux and then be able to play it back and watch one channel (a different one each time!) from a load of simultaneous ones.
I'll have to experiment with dvbstream... I presume I need to sudo it so it runs as root.
Reply to
NY
"NY" wrote
I don't know, I am always root, fixed that in /etc/passwd: #pi:x:1000:1000:,,,:/home/pi:/bin/bash pi:x:0:0:,,,:/root:/bin/bash
you do not drive your car from the passenger seat I hope?
Anyways, recording the whole TS seems to work, even on this old raspi B. # cat /proc/cpuinfo Processor : ARMv6-compatible processor rev 7 (v6l) BogoMIPS : 464.48 Features : swp half thumb fastmult vfp edsp java tls CPU implementer : 0x41 CPU architecture: 7 CPU variant : 0x0 CPU part : 0xb76 CPU revision : 7
Hardware : BCM2708 Revision : 000e
# uname -a Linux raspberrypi 3.6.11+ #371 PREEMPT Thu Feb 7 16:31:35 GMT 2013 armv6l GNU/Linux
Maybe needs a reasonable fast SDcard? Mine says SDHC or something.
There is an other program I wrote, it is called jpfilter:
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it can give you info about what PIDs are in the transport stream and also filter out specific ones.
jpfilter -h
jpfilter-0.3 By Jan Panteltje usage: cat transponder.ts | jpfilter [-a PID1 ] [-b PID2] ... [-g PID7] [-h] [-i 0x47s] [-p] [-s skip_packets] [-v verbose_level] > program.ts -h help (this help). -i int ignore first int 0x47 found. -p scan for PIDs, no stream output. -s unsigned long skip int packets, default 0. -v int verbose, prints some variables, functions and arguments. Examples: To find PIDs is a ts: cat movie.ts | jpfilter -p Or: jpfilter < movie.ts -p -v 1
To find PIDs in a ts and see how many times a specific PID occurs: jpfilter < movie.ts -p -v 1
To make a file with only the wanted PIDs: jpfilter < movie.ts -a wantedPID1 -b wantedPID2 ... -g wantedPID7 > filtered_movie.ts
Reply to
Jan Panteltje
Hmmm. That command, with various values of the f parameter for the frequencies of my transmitter's multiplexes, gives various error messages:
dvbstream v0.7 - (C) Dave Chapman 2001-2004 Released under the GPL. Latest version available from
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FRONTEND DEVICE: : Device or resource busy Tuning to 490000 Hz FE_GET_INFO: : Bad file descriptor dvbstream will stop after -1 seconds (71582788 minutes) Output to stdout Streaming 1 stream
which look pretty fatal, but...
I do actually get a recording of a different multiplex: whatever value of f I use (490 MHz is PSB3 - BBC1 and ITV HD) I always get mux COM7 (BBC News HD etc).
That's with the command run under sudo.
I wonder if the problem is that the Pi is running TVHeadend (though not actually tuned to anything) - might that be locking the tuner, and maybe the last time I used that decoder I'd tuned it to COM7.
What I have established is that the Pi can indeed record a whole T2 mux without getting its knickers in a twist.
Reply to
NY
"NY" wrote
Maybe type fuser /dev/dvb/adapter0/frontend0
this should display a number, say NUMBER then type ps avx | grep NUMBER and that should show the process that uses your frontend0 (is the tuner) If it is not dvbstream, then maybe that is TVHeadend?
Not sure how to stop that TVHeadend but you could perhaps try kill -KILL NUMBER
and then run ps avx | grep NUMBER again to see if it is now gone.
and then try dvbstream again.
If all else fails related to FE_GET_INFO, here is my old version of dvbstream:
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Cool.
This is how I stream over my LAN (for one channel only). On the PC with IP address 182.168.178.159 I type: while [ 1 ] ; do netcat -l -p 1233 | mplayer -cache 8102 -vf pp=0x20000 - ; sleep 1 ; done
then do ssh -Y pi@192.168.178.75 to my rapy at 192.168.178.75 you will then need to do sudo su - I suppose
and type (well actually it is a script) dvbstream -c 0 -I 2 -qam 64 -gi 4 -cr 1_2 -crlp 1_2 -bw 8 -tm 8 -f 562000 -o 7011 7012 7013 | netcat 192.168.178.159 1233
and see the video / hear the audio in mplayer on the PC.
The 'while' on the receive end is needed to prevent you having to type the commend every time if you change a channel for example, control C exits that while.
That way you can record on the PC too (and not on the rapi SDcard), more space, big harddisk... netcat -l -p 1233 > my_recording.ts then watch timeshifted, in an other terminal: mplayer -cache 8102 -vf pp=0x20000 my_recording.ts
or record and play at the same time: netcat -l -p 1233 | tee my_recording.ts | mplayer -cache 8102 -vf pp=0x20000 -
and then play the recording again later: mplayer -cache 8102 -vf pp=0x20000 my_recording.ts
Makes raspi into a TV box maybe some place in the window better reception... I use an old bowty TV antenna in the attic to get very good DVB-T reception here in the country.
There is a lot possible, netcat is one of the coolest things around, works worldwide too :-)
Maybe if you have a more modern raspi you can stream the whole transport stream to the PC?
Reply to
Jan Panteltje
With a bit of further testing, that's exactly what's happening: dvbstream always tunes to the last mux that TVHeadend tuned to - that's reproducable.
That command completes but doesn't produce any stdout
I found the process ID of TVHeadend and killed it, and now dvbstream works as expected. It can't lock to any DVB-T2 mux (only DVB-T) but it may need a tweak in the QAM (etc) settings on the dvbstream command line. I'll see what parameters a typical channel in PSB3, COM7 or COM8 uses, and tweak the command accordingly.
VLC can also tune to any DVB-T mux, but not (as yet) a DVB-T2 one). Again, it may be that the auto settings for the QAM etc parameters aren't right and I need to set them manually.
I'll have a play with streaming channels over the network...
Reply to
NY
NY wrote
I think for DVB-T2 you need a different dongle than the old sticks? IIRC the decoding is done in hardware in the dongle. Or are you using a new model?
Maybe I will buy one of those when DVB-T2 is actually transmitted here.
Reply to
Jan Panteltje
Jan,
I've been thinking about using my pi as a PVR [1] for a while, but have no experience with any of it. Next to that I currently still have an analog cable signal, but that could change to a digital one in the (near - a year or two perhaps) future.
[1] For recording, but if possible also for replay. Not necessarily at the same time though. It will mostly be used for time-shifting purposes.
I'm at a loss to what I should be looking at (possible problem areas), and even if I can make a choice which will work for both analog as well as digital (or if its wise to want that ...).
In other words, I'm looking for a solution which works "out of the box" (so I can see that it actually works - I do not want to have to fight a fight I'm not sure I can win (because of stuff being incompatible) ), but still allows me to program against / modify it (like being able to remote in to set capture times, or see which movies have been recorded, write my own program to control stuff, etc - I've already been looking at KODI/XBMC info, but am not sure if I like its "plugin" system)
Do you have any ideas, hints and/or site links ?
Additional info: I'm living in the Netherlands, which uses PAL.
Regards, Rudy Wieser
Reply to
R.Wieser
OSMC. You will probably have to manually add TVHeadend frontend. Works here with DVB-T and DVB-T2. Recording, timeshift, pre-recorded video, music etc.
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--

Chris Elvidge, England
Reply to
Chris Elvidge
I have two dongles: a Hauppauge WinTV Nova-T (what a mouthful!) which is DVB-T only, and a PCTV 292e which is DVB-T/DVB-T2. The latter is needed for HD channels.
TVHeadend (and Windows Media Centre and NextPVR on Windows) can quite happily record from DVB-T2 multiplexes (HD channels). dvbstream can record from them as long as TVHeadend has left the 292e tuned to a DVB-T2 mux, but seems not to be able to tune the device itself to a T2 mux. I'll investigate all the esoteric QAM and guard interval parameters, since I made no attempt to alter those from what you used in your command.
We're lucky in the UK that everywhere (in theory) gets at least one T2 multiplex:
- all the main transmitters (I use Bilsdale in North Yorkshire) get the full 8 (PSB1-3, COM4-8), of which PSB3 and COM7/8 are T2/HD
- some of the bigger relays get PSB1-3 and COM4-6 (ie not COM7/8)
- all the other relays get "Freeview Lite" which is multiplexes PSB1, 2 and 3 (but none of the COM multiplexes)
So wherever one is in the UK, one should be able to get at least PSB3 (T2/HD) which includes BBC1, BBC2, ITV1, Channel 4 and Five in HD.
One day I'll investigate the mysteries of satellite. We are in the process of looking for a new house, and depending on where we move to, we may be out of range of a main transmitter so we may go for a Sky dish, either taking out a full Sky subscription or else at least getting Freesat for the main channels.
I use my RPi as a PVR, but I then move recordings onto a Windows PC that I use for storing and playing - I either watch in VLC on that PC, or else using Plex server and Plex client on a Roku box connected to the TV. So far I've not investigated playing or serving directly from the Pi.
Reply to
NY
I just use TVHeadend without the OSMC or Kodi front end. It seems to do a good job. The only thing that is a bit poor is the EPG, which lists events sorted by channel and time, rather than displaying them as a grid (time on horizontal axis, channels vertically). You probably need OSMC/Kodi for the grid. There's talk about adding a grid interface to the web interface of TVHeadend as an alternative to the list. I've learned to live with the list EPG, typing in a programme title to find it.
You *may* find that the Pi is OK for playing, though you will almost certainly need to buy an MPEG decoder module for a few pounds/Euros, because the one that is built into Raspbian is very slow.
I can send you the notes I made when I was configuring TVHeadend: it's not quite plug-and-play, but I've got it to work - I had to re-do all my work when my Pi suddenly stopped booting and all the obvious solutions didn't help so I had to start from a fresh installation of Raspbian. Having got everything set up, I've now saved an image of the SD card so I can go back to that state more easily if it's ever necessary.
Reply to
NY
"NY" wrote
The Cinergy S2 satellite USB receiver I have works OK with xdipo, also on DVB-S2. Use it a lot to record movies. But it is an older model, and likely not available anymore. It had its quirks too, blew a transistor once, and I added a big heatsink to it as my dish motor was a bit too much for it. I think linuxtv.org has a list of supported USB satellite tuners.
Pi is fun, I am using an other one as 4G router, is my internet connection:
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that is a cheap 4G Megafon Huawei stick from ebay. Canceled my cable subscription, and this works actually better at lower cost. Anyone wants the scripts ask here. And I can take the stick in my laptop and have same internet everywhere. sms works too.
Reply to
Jan Panteltje
"R.Wieser" wrote
Hard to tell. When I had cable it came with a receiver with HDMI output and recording capabilities, never got that working ;-) I got a HDMI to analog converter box from ebay and fed that into a capture card in the PC. Designed an infrared transmitter to control that cable tuner from the PC so I could select channels and start recordings on specified times. Not an out of the box solution.
My personal advice would be to use the Pi for terrestrial TV (DVB-T DVB_T2) only and get a satellite dish. Hundreds of free channels from all over the world are on satellite. I have been using satellite now since about year 2000.
Only because NPO1 to NPO3 are encrypted on satellite I needed the DVB-T. Seems to be a political decision to encrypt those.. most other countries have their public channels free to air.
Anyways, for satellite xdipo works, both on the raspberry and the PC, has a recorder, can set timers, can do HD and DVB-S2. You can connect your DVB stick to a PC too and record on harddisk.
It is hard to give advice on these things.
Maybe just get one of those DVB-T2 sticks and play around with it. When satisfied cancel the cable, see my posting to NY.

Reply to
Jan Panteltje
I did this, too. And used it as a firewall, http server, sftp server. That's why I used OSMC not LibreELEC.
--

Chris Elvidge, England
Reply to
Chris Elvidge
Bad advice
Worse anology.
By all means do this yourself, but don't recommend it to people who are not aware of how stupid this is.
---druck
Reply to
druck
Perfect analogy
You seem clueless.
All that could ever happen is that you erase some files. Been root since Linux SLS in 1998. ONCE I accidently typed rm -rf /* Took an hour or so to restore some libraries. Some years ago I accidently erased some other file. Fixed it. And I do make backups, even of raspi SDcards.
The analogy to driving your car from the passenger seat is perfect. Only an idiot would hop over to the driver seat when turning, or breaking. sudo this sudo that,. And while you are sudo you can still cause havoc.
Linus himself not so long ago warned against that silly game. Better learn how Unix works, and be aware what you type, are doing. Better than dancing the idiot dance with everybody who has no clue like you.
Fear sells, fear keeps people under control.
Stay an idiot if you like, not my problem.
After 2018 - 1998 = 20 years of being root and if you ever make it that long and actually program stuff, having typed 'sudo' over a trillion times, be proud of your waste of time.
Dangerous, idiot! you have no idea what dangerous is.
Sounds like dreck
Reply to
Jan Panteltje
I'm with druck here. Doing more than you absolutely have to as root leaves the machine open to bigger and better attacks for no good reason.
Routinely running Windows boxes as SystemAdmin or, worse, assigning that privilege to their usual login is what gets so many home systems infected by malware because it too gets access to everything.
Similarly, reading mail or running a web browser while logged in as root gives any malware in mail or on infected websites unlimited access to your system by letting it also run as root, but those are only the most obvious dangers.
That is why sensible people never run as root for any longer than absolutely necessary, don't configure servers to run as root and don't recommend running as root to newbies.
--
Martin    | martin at 
Gregorie  | gregorie dot org
Reply to
Martin Gregorie

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