New Electricity

Magnetic Field Due to Current

The model proposed by Maxwell that relies on the current loop and is worked out by Gauss an example of fluid mechanics (to make the mathematics beautiful and easy), and is based around the Pythagorean philosophy of perfection is not only just a bit out by completely wrong based on the wrong principles. The correct answer is by using the concept of 4 -perspective with virtual photons emanating from individual electrons drifting through the fixed positive charges in a conductor. The relative movement of the charges makes an electrostatic force between current carrying conductors. I the case of alternating current the real photons emitted by the electrons as the change from one velocity to the next in the particle in a box ladder (quantum mechanics) interact with the electrons around them to cause them to change energy according to the rules of quantum mechanics. This gives rise to a calculation (integration round the loop) that shows that another current loop inside has a force of compression on it and a net force that tend to move it to a position symmetrical about the axis. The force is higher near the current loop and drops towards the axis. Measurements support this. Since a solenoid is a series of loop this is true for these too.

The model of flux flowing through a loop of current is the concept that is wrong. The mathematics the gauss used is correct it is the physics that is wrong.

Relativity - Affine Geometry?

Abstract:

Einstein addressed the twin paradox in special relativity in a relatively unknown, unusual and rarely cited paper written in 1918, in the form of a dialogue between a critic and a relativist. Contrary to most textbook versions of the resolution, Einstein admitted that the special relativistic time dilation was symmetric for the twins, and he had to invoke, asymmetrically, the general relativistic gravitational time dilation during the brief periods of acceleration to justify the asymmetrical aging. Notably, Einstein did not use any argument related to simultaneity or Doppler shift in his analysis. I discuss Einstein's resolution and several conceptual issues that arise. It is concluded that Einstein's resolution using gravitational time dilation suffers from logical and physical flaws, and gives incorrect answers in a general setting. The counter examples imply the need to reconsider many issues related to the comparison of transported clocks. The failure of the accepted views and resolutions is traced to the fact that the special relativity principle formulated originally for physics in empty space is not valid in the matter-filled universe. Einstein's special theory of relativity is about measurements between frames of reference in a state of non acceleration. It is an observation that the velocity of light is independent of the relative velocity between observer and the source. From this Lorenz postulated a length contraction to allow for this. Einstein derived the same equation from the observations. If you look at this equation there is no special frame so any frame may be taken as the reference frame. Let us consider the passage of mesons from the origin in the upper atmosphere to their arrival at a counter on the earth's surface. The observer "sees" the origin from his frame and since he is "looking" at the meson then this point is only a few feet above the laboratory roof because of the Lorenz contraction thus accounting for the short passage time. The "meson" "sees" the path it travels from the upper atmosphere to the surface as the same few feet as it is "looking" at the observer's reference frame.

It seems to me that there is no real contraction, only an effect similar to perspective as a result of the way light travels and is only an appearance. Relativity is 4-space perspective. This would mean that a journey in a very fast space craft to a nearby solar system (say 10 light years) would take a time given after the length contraction and time contraction had been allowed for. (This is called the 4-velocity) I suggest that the 4-velocity is the "real" velocity and what we see is the result of 4-space perspective V=v/sqr(1-(v/c)^2) V is the 4-velocity and the velocity in all frames. It would therefore be possible for deep space journeys with a fast spacecraft in normal time spans. (By fast I mean velocities close to that of light - say closer than 99%c). It also strikes me that since all frames are equivalent the "Twin Paradox" does not occur the two brothers will agree both about the time and distance travelled.

Since perspective is the projection of 3-space to 2-space then relativity is the projection of 4-space to 3-space.

So even the man himself admitted his idea had been misinterpreted by his followers. The general theory relativity that deals with acceleration does not map well into special relativity because the forces on the objects do not influence signal exchanges in any way.

If you think of the star ship journey in terms of a two dimensional space time diagram (other massive objects are too far away to be of any influence) then you have a hill. Now in normal hills the distance over the hill is longer than the distance along the flat, but in the relativity case the distance over the hill is shorter than the flat because it is a negative hill.

That is because one of the dimensions is jct and the other is x now using Pythagoras the hypotenuse for this negative hill, which is really just a wobbly 'v' is 2*( x^2-(ct)^2)^0.5 and that is less than 2x. This is because we are in hyperspace. x is the "rest" distance and "t" is the time calculated at the x/v where v is the velocity. So the distance travelled is

2*(x^2-(c(x/v))^2)^0.5. and that takes (that distance)/v in real time.The precise shape of the curve only means we need to do an integration along the curve VIS differential geometry, I get it now, with my brand new brain, fitted after they took out my old one a couple of months ago.

Get it! So space travel is really very easy you just have to fast enough.

"The faster you go, the quicker you get there" just like running a race!

I didn't win!

My understanding of special relativity is limited. However my opinion is that the contraction effects are a 4-perspective effect due to the constancy of the velocity of light, there is no physical contraction at all.

My mind forms a concept of a ^ shaped hill of the space-time trajectory of a return particle path where the path over the hill is shorter that the path taken at rest or very slowly, so the higher the velocity the shorter the path over the hill. It is a metric space.

The other related point is the relativistic momentum now since the path depends on the velocity then there is the notion of a real or true velocity v/gamma. In the momentum of a particle the momentum as measured by collision is m v/gamma so as the velocity increases the mass remains the same.

In the derivation of the kinetic energy the formula: mv/sqr(1-(v/c)^2)

may be separated into to partial fractions m x v/Sqr(1-(v/c)^2) then you integrate with respect to v from 0 to a number less than c to find the kinetic energy.

This gives the solution mc2 for the rest mass energy as with the older Einstein version. He chose his method because of theological augment to make the maths easier: he said "God would not choose such a 'complicated' mathematics". God is not stupid either.

This method gives the idea of a true or real velocity of v/sqr(1-(v/c)^2). However the time taken for a round trip works out different from the usual relativity theory, as in a Metric space.

The general theory is a metric space where the distance shortest between adjacent points is given by a metric resulting from the sum mass + energy nearby. It could be represented by a matrix which could include the special theory as terms in the matrix to work out the distance between adjacent points.

Again there is no real contraction it caused by 4-perpective due the metric caused by the constancy of the velocity of light.

The metric is the way (a formula - a set of rules) we calculate the distance between points in a manifold. In ordinary Euclidian 3-space it is given by Pythagoras: s^2=x1^2+x2^2+x3^2. In Einstienian 4 space it is s^2=x1^2+x2^2+x3^2-(ct)^2 That is when nothing in the description is moving. When things move the usage is to measure distances, usually of the observers frame.

The metric tensor then contains the elements that are involved is special relativity, transforming measurements from one frame to another. It transforms one 4-vector to another 4-vector in the general case which includes acceleration and gravity then the metric tensor contains these elements as well.

But it still transforms from one 4-vector to another 4-vector in matrix multiplication.

V2=V1 x M where M is the metric tensor.

In the differential form the transformation is between adjacent points in

4-space and using Fermat's theorem the path of least time can be found and this is a geodesic in the non Euclidian space near a massive object of a projectile moving at relativistic velocity - close to c.Another important path is where the projectile is powered by a rocket and here the object is accelerating.

I would have thought total energy description - langranian type description may be easier in conjunction with Fermat's theorem of least time to compute the trajectory in space time as a series of 4-vectors.

There is no electric field. The force between electrons is carried by virtual photons that connect one electron with one electron in another place. It is an exchange force. They do not drop in force with distance the density of photons varies with distance as the inverse square of the distance so the probability of interaction goes down with distance, for massive objects it gives you the inverse square law of coulomb.

The electron itself is a photon that cannot propagate because of its own self gravity. The enclosed self energy is such that the photon cannot propagate. "Stuck light" in fact. This photon is waving outside the stuck place so its influence can be felt over an infinite distance. In fact, using the group x phase velocity = constant we have that for electrons the group velocity is 0 and the constant is c so the phase velocity is infinite. so for some interactions like entanglement (a consequence of Fermi (electrons come in pairs - up and down) ) then the change of an electron up to down that is tangled with it pair 10 light years away will be felt instantaneously and the other member of the pair will change from down to up with no loss of amplitude.

This might be of interest too ...

A virtual particle is one that does not exist (by definition).

In classical electromagnetism radiation from a dipole there are two Hertzian waves, the space wave that leaves the dipole and carries energy and momentum with it and the induction field which does not radiate but whose energy passes back to to the radiator.

The space wave is a radiant energy field whose power is E.X.H (the vector product of E and H) this is known as Poynting's (it is a man's name) vector this has a frequency f. Now this actually consists of (E x H)/hf photons per second each having an energy hf. These photons are the result of transitions inside the conductor of the dipole as the electrons jump from one level to another (according to microwave theory this is at the permitted frequency of the exciter) as they do so the emit a photon carrying the energy hf, the total momentum change. They do not weaken with the inverse square law they connect with another electron in a random manner such that all their energy and total momentum is taken up by the electron. The density of these photons diminishes as the inverse square of the distance and with the polar diagram of the radiator.

The induction field is the one with the virtual photons they do not propagate and collapse back to their emitting electrons.

Mutual and Self Inductance

Mutual and Self Inductance are quantum mechanical effects involving photons inside the inductance. Think of Fyneman.

The acceleration of charges generates photons according to hf where the frequency of the sinusoid exciter if f and h Planck's constant. The number of photons is the energy of the sinusoid divided by hf. These photons are emitted and absorbed during the cycle making inductance. The photons are emitted by one electron when it makes a transition to another level the step is at the energy corresponding frequency of the exciter it is connected only to one other electron that changes its energy by the same amount, the photon also caries the angular momentum associated with the transition, this is the change of angular momentum and the vector difference in momentum between the two energy states. The photons interact randomly without any loss of energy, momentum or angular momentum but the distribution of the interactions means that the density falls according to the inverse square law and the radiation polar diagram. This applies to mutual and self inductance and to normal radiation from a wire.

When a solenoid is subjected to a step function then the photons have a distribution of frequency similar to a radiating black body (see Planck who worked out the messy equation) and are re-absorbed at the same time causing the effect of self inductance.

If you make a single loop of wire bent into a circle and pass a regulated 1 amp current through it you will make a "magnetic field". According to Gauss you have to imagine it is there and calculate accordingly. Then comes an extraordinary performance of human intellect beginning with the magnetic shells construction that shows that the field is uniform across the plane of the loop.

According to Carl Popper we should now measure it to see. Using a compass as a tangent galvanometer with the earth's field as a reference you can measure the relative strength of the field in the region of the magnet by measuring its deflection (according to the field theory). I have done this and the field is about three times higher near the wire than at the centre. This disproves the magnetic shell construction.

Another basic algorithm is the idea that a series of loops is like one loop multiplied. Well if you do the same thing for six turns then the compass measurement is the same near the wire than at the centre.

This shows that the basic algorithm of what is true on one is true of many as one times the number of repetitions, is false.

I would like to propose a different model: that the magnet is responding to spin-spin interactions as a quantum mechanical effect. These are entirely electrostatic in nature.

The magnetic field does not exist it is fictitious.

The model of the magnetic effect of current is in reality the Lorenz contraction of the moving electrons relative to the fixed charges in the wire and the electrostatic force is mediated by virtual photons.

Since the electrons always occupy the same space in the wire even though they are moving it shows that special relativity is an effect like perspective.

The inductive effect is in reality caused by the acceleration of electrons. Now these little charged particles are governed by quantum mechanics and the energy states up the ladder are discontinuous and the electrons jump from one state to the next the two states overlap and during the transition a fluctuation occurs and a photon emission occurs, just like the hydrogen spectrum.

This photon interacts with just one electron in another wire or the same wire and imparts momentum and energy to change the electron from its original state to its new state. This also means that the photon carries momentum both linear and angular and energy.

This is both mutual and self inductance.

Electromagnetism

Electromagnetism theory reached its pinnacle in the nineteenth century with Maxwell's famous equations.

Let us take two examples.

The case of two parallel conductors carrying current.

- Currents parallel.

The current is a slow movement of electrons with fixed positive charges. The electrons are moving parallel in the two wires so are stationary relative to each other. The positive charges are seen as moving. According to Einstein's theory of relativity the length of the positive charge is contracted as seen by the electrons and so the electrons see an increased charge density over the charge density of the electrons. This makes the force of attraction between unlike charges slightly greater than the force of repulsion between unlike charges. This means that there is a net force of attraction.

- Currents anti-parallel.

The electrons are now moving anti-parallel and so they see a length contraction of the other electron charge. The positive charges are also seen contracted but not as much. So the electrons are seen as having a greater charge density than the fixed positive charges. Thus the force of repulsion of like charges is greater than the force of attraction of unlike charges. This means there is a net force of repulsion. Induction. Consider two conducting wires parallel. One conductor has an alternating current flowing in it. This means that the electrons are accelerating and thus their electric field lines have a kink in them so there is a transverse component this field moves the electrons in the other wire. Thus producing an induced potential. The magnitude of the induced potential would be proportional to the rate of change of the current in the first conductor. Electromagnetism

The reasoning below shows that there is no magnetic field it is a false concept. Iron filings are not an indication of strength at all. It is a fallacy. This theory is based around the special theory of relativity and the relative motion of electrons and fixed charges in a conductor. With alternating current the electrons are accelerating and generate photons at the exciting frequency and this radiation is responsible for other aspects of electromagnetism. This includes the induction of current in one conductor by alternating current in another.

Electromagnetism theory reached its pinnacle in the nineteenth century with Maxwell's famous equations.

Let us take two examples.

The case of two parallel conductors carrying current

- Currents parallel.

The current is a slow movement of electrons with fixed positive charges. The electrons are moving parallel in the two wires so are stationary relative to each other. The positive charges are seen as moving. According to Einstein's theory of relativity the length of the positive charge is contracted as seen by the electrons and so the electrons see an increased charge density over the charge density of the electrons. This makes the force of attraction between unlike charges slightly greater than the force of repulsion between unlike charges. This means that there is a net force of attraction.

- Currents anti-parallel.

The electrons are now moving anti-parallel and so they see a length contraction of the other electron charge. The positive charges are also seen contracted but not as much. So the electrons are seen as having a greater charge density than the fixed positive charges. Thus the force of repulsion of like charges is greater than the force of attraction of unlike charges. This means there is a net force of repulsion.

Induction Consider two conducting wires parallel. One conductor has an alternating current flowing in it. This means that the electrons are changing their energy and emit photons at the exciting frequency these are emitted in random directions like a messenger with the energy change and momentum (angular and linear) and these are absorbed by electrons in another conductor nearby and this information is transferred by photon collision to make the electrons in the other wire move thus inducing an current.

In all these cases no magnetic field was required to account for the phenomena involved. So invoking Occum's razor, the magnetic field in not required and so does not exist. Consider two long straight copper conductors each carrying the same current in the same direction. The electrons move together at the same velocity in each cable. They repel one another. The fixed positive charges repel each other. However the electrons wire A attract the fixed charges in wire B but because the electrons are moving relative to the fixed charges they will see a higher charge density than the charge density due to the electrons in B so the attraction of electrons to fixed positive charges is higher than the repulsion between the same number of electrons in B. Similarly for electrons in wire B and the fixed positive charges in wire A. n=number of atoms per meter e=electronic charge d=separation l=length P=permittivity v=drift velocity of electrons c=velocity of light The force of repulsion is P***2***((e*n)^2)*l /d (= F) And the force of attraction is P***(2***((e*n)^2)*l/d)/sqr(1-(v/c)^2) So the resultant force is F-F/sqr(1-(v/c)^2)=F(1-1/sqr(1-(v/c)^2)) =F(1-(1-(v/c)^2)^(-1/2)) =F(1-(1+(1/2)(v/c)^2)) = F(v/c)^2/2 = (P***2***((e*n)^2)*l/d)(v/c)^2/2 = (P/c)***(((e***n*v)^2)*l/d) =(P/c)*i^2*l/d (e***n***v=i) So P/c is the "permeability" and the force is proportional to the current squared and the length but inversely proportional to the separation. There is no need for the idea of the magnetic field. There is no magnetic field

Experimental Test

Karl Popper has explained the scientific method. Use the predictions of the theory and test experimentally when judging a philosophical idea.

Science in only science if you carry out experiments to test the theories of yourself or another. To play philosophical games with words and equations is not science.

Go get a bit of wire make a straight part 40 cm long and connect it to a constant current source of say 1 amp.

Get the old electrostatic kit out of the 18th century box and using a glass rod wiped with silk make a pith ball coated with gold leaf charged by bringing the glass rod close to the ball and touch the ball briefly with a finger. The ball will be repelled by the glass rod.

Put the pith ball (suspended by a silk thread from a curved glass stand) near the wire and note the deflection from the vertical when the current is switched on.

I predict it will be repelled if negatively charged and attracted if positively charged. (confirmed) A bar magnet is in fact a group of spinning electrons which are coupled by spin-spin interactions (Quantum mechanics) that are mediated by virtual photons again a force that is electronic and connected to the Lorenz contraction.. The force on another bar magnet is actually due to spin-spin interactions (Quantum mechanics) which is electronic and related to the Lorenz contraction. A loop of wire carrying a current is again interacting with another current carrying conductor by the electrostatic force (mediated by virtual photons) and is again a result of the Lorenz contraction. The calculation to use is the biot-savart hypothesis (force between current elements) integrated. In view of this new insight we should re-name magnetism as the "Lorenz force". It also means that many of our reasoning based on observations made 300 years ago before Einstein developed his special theory of relativity are misconceived as they are based on the wrong model.

The Gaussian construction of magnetic shells does not come into it there is no magnetic flux or lines of force.

As a disclaimer I will point out that I am not the first or only person to point this out.

String Theory

String theory started as a simple way of modelling the characteristics of elementary particles as the result wave movement on a tiny circular string so that the various quantum states that produce particles are dependant on the number of standing waves around this string So more massive particles with more energy had more nodes in the waves thus more waves around the string.

Going back from this, the idea came from an electromagnetic representation of a particle as a photon going in a circle trapped by its own self gravity. So a photon pair when collided can form a little circulating standing wave and the electrical energy so contained makes for a gravitational bending of space so that the photon travels in a circle, when there is only one wavelength round a particle is formed in its ground state and thus lowest mass, higher energy states occur with more waves and thus higher frequency. The relationship of the trapped energy to frequency gives Planck's constant. It is discontinuous because only some combinations of wavelength to circular path and gravitational curvature fit.

I originally discussed this with Jonathan in about 1967-1968, he thought straight strings with mass and tension was easier to calculate, hence "string theory", when we were both working at the Rutherford Laboratory, Oxford. The original Idea, that I had in about 1961, was based on a unification of Gravity and Electromagnetism and Quantum Mechanics. The theory was much simpler than it sounds. Basically it said that Electromagnetic fields had energy and the energy content warped space time according to General Relativity so if the Electromagnetic field was strong enough the Gravitational effect would make the electromagnetic wave orbit and not travel. This trapped wave then is a particle. You have then to quantize it by saying that the Energy of the wave is related to its frequency by the Planck equation and then that only integer wavelengths are allowed round one of these orbits. These trapped waves form all our particles. They have different frequencies and can form from more than one frequency photons hybridising, so that a very large number of separate particles may come into existence.The radius of the tron to stop light escaping (the Swartzchild radius) is when the escape velocity equals the velocity of light. I make this: given by Gm/r^2=c........1 (This is the escape velocity at distance r from m (I think if I remember correctly)) and the energy of the mass m as: E=mc^2. The frequency of light of this energy is given by the Planck equation: E=hf So f=mc^2/h ... This is the frequency of the photon to make up a mass m. Now for a photon wave to fit the Swartzchild circumference so it goes round an integer wavelength times, then (fL=c) and nL=2.pi.r so nc/f=2.pi.r so nc/(mc^2/h)=2.pi.r.......2 Solving these two conditions for m gives: m=2(c/G)r^2 and m=n(h/2.pi)(1/r) where n is a positive integer. This gives a series of increasing values of m with each n as m increases then r increases By eliminating r and taking n=1 we can get an interesting relation between fundamental constants: h=2.pi.sqr(G(m/c)^3) where m is the mass of the electron. I do not know if this works out.

Here is a more general relation:

If the energy of an element of a electromagnetic wave is E^2/c where E is the local electric field then the equivalent elemental mass is given by the relation dmc^2=E^2/c. so dm=E^2/c^3. The gravitational force between elemental masses is Gdm1.dm2/(r12)^2 So the gravitational binding energy of the whole wave is: GSum(dm(n).dm(n)/(r(m,n))^2) over all m,n mn.

For a particular element this sum is the energy at that point:

GSum(dm.dm(m)/r(m)^2) goes to GIntegral(dm.dm/r^2)

The differential form is Gdm/r

Using the plank relation hf=energy then f=energy/h and energy is potential plus kinetic. The potential energy is the gravitational potential and the kinetic energy is Poynting's electromagnetic vector as a scalar. So f=-Gdm/r/h+E^2/hc So f=-GE^2/hrc^3+E^2/hc=E^2((-G/hc^3)(1/r)+1/hc) f=E^2/hc((G/c^2)(-1/r)+1)

I can't go any further, but it looks like a relation between r, E and f that can be made into a differential equation that will give a similar equation to the Schrödinger equation for an electron orbital, but instead applying to the photon trapped by gravity to form the electron. I think Schrödinger itself could be a case where the proton wave and the electron wave interact to make something new.

When a Proton (very heavy) unites with an electron to form a hydrogen atom it is known that the photons that make them up interact so that the electron occupies more space as Schrödinger said, with the proton photons interacting by interference with the electron photon the Electron Proton pair having lower energy than either separately and the bonding changing the photon in the electron's behaviour. In fact the electron may end up surrounding the proton with the proton inside the electron so the photons that make them up form an interference pattern that is the atom. So an electron is therefore a photon that has been trapped, or frozen, by its own mass/energy gravitational field so it cannot propagate. So all particles are like this and are made of photons of various frequencies, and indeed there could be particles containing more than one photon. There is no electric field. The force between electrons is carried by virtual photons that connect one electron with one electron in another place. It is an exchange force. They do not drop in force with distance the density of photons varies with distance as the inverse square of the distance so the probability of interaction goes down with distance, for massive objects it gives you the inverse square law of coulomb. The electron itself is a photon that cannot propagate because of its own self gravity. The enclosed self energy is such that the photon cannot propagate. "Stuck light" in fact. This photon is waving outside the stuck place so its influence can be felt over an infinite distance. In fact, using the group x phase velocity = constant we have that for electrons the group velocity is 0 and the constant is c so the phase velocity is infinite. so for some interactions like entanglement (a consequence of being fermions (electrons come in pairs - up and down) ) then the change of an electron up to down that is tangled with it pair 10 light years away will be felt instantaneously and the other member of the pair will change from down to up with no loss of amplitude. This might be of interest to ... A virtual particle is one that does not exist (by definition). In classical electromagnetism radiation from a dipole there are two Hertzian waves, the space wave that leaves the dipole and carries energy and momentum with it and the induction field which does not radiate but whose energy passes back to to the radiator. The space wave is a radiant energy field whose power is E.X.H (the vector product of E and H) this is known as Poynting's (it is a man's name) vector this has a frequency f. Now this actually consists of (E x H)/hf photons per second each having an energy hf. These photons are the result of transitions inside the conductor of the dipole as the electrons jump from one level to another (according to microwave theory this is at the permitted frequency of the exciter) as they do so they emit a photon carrying the energy hf, the total momentum change (think of it like a messenger). They do not weaken with the inverse square law they connect with another electron in a random manner such that all their energy and total momentum is taken up by the electron. The density of these photons diminishes as the inverse square of the distance and with the polar diagram of the radiator. The induction field is the one with the virtual photons they do not propagate and collapse back to their emitting electrons. Try thinking in terms of photon "messenger". It looks like a short burst of electric wobbles, but in fact it is the signal from a distant electron interfering with itself as it settles to its new state. The influence is the electron itself waving that is felt at a distance.

Spectra It is in reality the "stuff" of matter interacting with another matter a distance away.

The electron is energy (shall we say a disturbance in the shape of electric space) that cannot propagate because the energy it made changes the geodesic it is in into a loop so it gets stuck. This can influence other electrons at a distance after a propagation delay as their wave functions interact.

Not what you think at all.